"In life there is nothing that should have to be afraid of, is just what you need to understand." – Maria Skłodowska-Curie
7 November 2017 year marks 150 years since the birth of Maria Sklodowska-Curie is a prominent physicist, chemist, Nobel Prize winner. Behind these achievements – a decade of stubborn, tireless, ascetic labor, huge spiritual power of najvidatnìšoï women in the history of the world of science.
Maria was born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw, and was the fifth child in a family of Polish intellectuals Sklodovskih. The family was very happy, all its members aspired to knowledge each was willing to donate to someone else, everyone was very developed sense of duty. Very young Maria brilliantly studied in grammar school, she worked as in the chemistry lab of his cousin and then became detect great interest in scientific research. Great Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev, creator of the periodic table of the chemical elements (who was familiar with the father of Mary), seeing a girl at work in the laboratory, predicted a great future for her, if she will continue their training in chemistry. However, on the way to accomplishing your dreams Mary met two obstacles − not only the poverty of the family, but also the prohibition for women to be studentkami of Warsaw University.
In 1883, after graduating with a Golden Medal of the Warsaw gymnasium, Marie went to Paris, where, in 1891, she entered the Faculty of natural sciences of the University of the Sorbonne. It was an extraordinary diligence and hard work often at the expense of sleep and regular meals. After graduating from University, has received two diplomas – in physics and mathematics. In student's years Maria has received the order for the work to study the magnetic properties of different grades of steel. Initially this work she performed in the laboratory of Professor Lìppmana, and in 1894, Marie began working with physicist Pierre Curie, who was head of the laboratory of the municipal school of Industrial Physics and chemistry. It was then began her journey in science and revealed the talent of the researcher. Closer to the ground grabbing physics, Maria and Pierre a year later were married. Working in the laboratory of a husband, she studied the phenomenon of magnetism, on which he worked. In 1897, Maria has completed work on magnetic properties of hardened steels. In the same year they are born daughter Irene. By this time, Maria Skłodowska-Curie has already received the title of Professor, and became the first in the history of the University of the Sorbonne woman-teacher.
In 1896, Henri Becquerel made the discovery of the radiation of uranium, and Curie are seriously interested in a new problem of radioactivity. The idea is to explore the open Bekkerelem rays and unravel around them riddles captured Mary. She begins to study waste smolânoï of uranium ore, it joins and Pierre, leaving his studies of magnetism. Goalkeepers several tons of uranium ore and using as carriers of barium and bismuth, they received two very radioactive Siege: bìsmutu hydroxide and barium sulfate. In the first of the residue was discovered a previously unknown element.
In 1898, after having proved his chemical individuality, it was named in honor of the motherland of Maria Sklodowska-Curie with polonium. In barium sulfatì has found the second new chemical element. A tremendous activity and tremendous penetration ability of its rays a new item of the spouses Curie called Radium from the Latin word radius – Ray.
Curie conducted their research in very adverse conditions in the wet and cold. At the time, was not aware of the harmful effects of radiation on the body, so the work was carried out without any protection and the scientists develop radiation skin lesions.
Maria and Pierre have begun the industrial extraction of radium. Reserves this item that they received during the joint labor, made the base for scientific research, a whole generation of scientists.
The research of Maria Sklodowska-Curie had great importance for medicine – bringing a new therapeutic method is radìoterapìêû.
In June 1903 year Maria Skłodowska-Curie brilliantly defended his doctoral dissertation at the Sorbonne entitled "Study of radioactive substances".
In December 1903 the year Mary and Pierre Curie and Henri Bekkerelû was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for collaborative research of the phenomena of radiation. The same year the Royal Society awarded spouses Curie Medal of the Devi.
Doctoral dissertation of Maria Sklodowska-Curie was in Russia in 1904, a separate Edition. At the same time were issued its monographs in the Russian translation of "Glad s radioaktivnye veŝestva" (1904) and "Glad and radioaktivnost (1903), a number of other works printed in the journal of the Russian physical and chemical society (1900-1909). In 1912, Russian translation partially released her major work, "Radioaktivnost" and only in 1947, Monograph of Maria Sklodowska-Curie was published in Russian in its entirety. The monographs she describes in detail the biological effect of radiation; provides some data on the use of radioactive substances in medicine; stresses the need to protect the personnel, working with sources of jonìzuvalnogo radiation.
on April 19, 1906 the year tragically killed Pierre Curie. Despite the tremendous grief, she found the strength to continue their joint research. on May 13, 1906 year Marie Curie was appointed Professor at the Faculty of natural sciences at the Sorbonne – for the first time in the history of the French high school, the woman received a profesorsku Department.
In his lab, Mary creates a Department of dosimetry to control radioactivity substances and minerals. At the same time so produced the first international standard of radium, which is now stored in the Bureau of weights and balances in Sévry under Paris (in a glass tube it yourself zapaâla 21 mg. pure Radium Chloride).
In 1910, she identified together with the French chemist a. Debernom – the metal radium, its atomic weight and place in the periodic table, the periodic table.
In 1911, the Marie Curie "for the discovery of Radium and Polonium, obtaining of Radium in the field condition and realization of experiments related to Radium" was awarded the second Nobel Prize for outstanding merits in the development of chemistry. Its mascot, she chose the ampoule with radium, which invariably wore on his chest. Marie Curie was the first among the Nobel Laureates received the world's highest scientific Award twice. And to date remains the only scientist in history, awarded Nobel Prize in two different branches of the natural sciences: Physics and chemistry.
In honor of Maria Sklodowska-Curie, unit of radioactivity named-Curie. Most of the drugs of radium that existed in Russia until 1917 onwards, have been certified with the signature of Maria Sklodowska-Curie.
During the first world war, Maria Skłodowska-Curie action ensuring assistance to the wounded. She has 200 x-ray rooms on cars and herself as her daughter Irene Curie worked in them. The experience of the military Radiology laid out in the monograph "Radiology and war."
After the war, from 1919 onwards, Maria Skłodowska-Curie, despite worsening health condition, worked at the Institute of radium. Under her leadership here worked her daughter Irene and son-in-law Frederic Joliot-Curie, which belongs to the discovery of the phenomenon of artificial radioactivity.
Maria Skłodowska-Curie was a member of the academies of many countries, and the 1907 year elected corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In 1911, Warsaw scientific society has chosen her its honorary member. In 1914 p. Curie became an honorary member of the Moscow physical-medical society in 1926 – honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University activities several times was associated with the Lviv polìtehnìkoû. In July 1912, she visited Lviv will school (then the name of the National University "lvivska politekhnika"). Scientific Council of the Polytechnic on the same day award her the title of honorary doctor of technical sciences. Her name is memorialized on the Board honorary doctors "honoris causa" Lviv Polytechnic National University. In a letter dated 1922, Curie said about the possibility of promotion through the League of Nations to provide financial assistance to the University. The world-famous physicist Marian Smoluhovskij mentioned that it helped in the Organization of training prospective scientists Lviv in leading European research institutions.
In 1921, the Curie visited the United States to accept the gift of one gram of Radium to continue the experiments. During his second visit to the United States in 1929 she received donations, which acquired another gram of radium for therapeutic use in one of Warsaw hospitals.
Marie Curie has published a number of scientific papers on radioactivity. For 15 years was published 483 scientific papers, of which Peru Maria Sklodowska-Curie had 31 printed research. Radium was the object of study of the greatest scientists of the world.
The discovery of polonium and radium, as well as the development of the method of obtaining radioactive Radium have played a key role in the development of nuclear medicine, which today is the basis of radiation therapy. Due to this, all over the world have numerous Institutes of radium, known as the Curie institutes. In Warsaw, the Institute of Radium was opened with the active participation of Maria Curie University in 1932, and the honorary Director was a great scientist. It is known that the first rentgenaparati for the treatment of skin diseases and tumors and contact methods of radìêvoï therapy actively introduce herself Curie.
At the end of 1933 year Maria Skłodowska-Curie became ill. Despite the deterioration of health she continued to work. In the spring of 1934 the year the State of her health worsened, was diagnosed with acute malignant anaemia associated with constant radiation influence. The disease progressed and 4 July 1934 year Maria Sklodowska-Curie.
Maria Skłodowska-Curie − visokoobdarovanij scientist and founder of the science of radioactivity, which to this day remains a unique example in the history of world scientific opinion, which she has dedicated all his life.
In 2009 r. magazine "New Scientist" acknowledged Maria Sklodovsku Curie najvidatnìšoû female scientist of all time. In Poland the year 2011 has been announced the year of Maria Sklodowska-Curie. In the year 2017 marks 150 years since the birth of ingenious researcher Maria Sklodowska-Curie. Around this date in the Polish medical library in Kiev rolled wide portrait exhibition devoted to the figure of Maria Sklodowska-Curie in the context of modern scientific achievements in Poland and Ukraine. The exhibition presented scientific papers from the funds of the national scientific medical library of Ukraine, which introduce the research and discoveries of Maria Sklodowska-Curie and illustrations of diplomas of laureate of the Nobel Prize in physics and chemistry. Showing also the author of the book: the monograph "Radioaktivnost", 1960, "Pierre Kûri", 1926, and the works of the renowned academic, published in French, English, Ukrainian, Russian. Among them: Maria Kûri: biografiâ», written by his daughter Eve, 1977, 2006 Biography of the academic is built on a large number of documentary sources, quotations from diaries and letters of Maria Sklodowska-Curie. The exhibition features books about life and great scientific discoveries the Curie family – daughter Irena and son-in-law Frederic Joliot-Curie. In 1935, the couple behind the discovery of artificial radioactivity and the synthesis of new radioactive elements were awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry.